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What traces were left at Amarna to tell archaeologists what the city looked like and what it was like to live there?

After 3500 years, very little remains of the city itself. Buildings of mud brick crumble, and the stone blocks of the palaces and temples were carted away by Akhenaten’s successors, to build their own monuments elsewhere. The archaeologists working on the site over the past 150 years have often had to use very faint evidence to determine the size and shape of Amarna’s buildings.

Report by archaeologist Barry Kemp on identifying the outlines of a building now called the Small Aten Temple: "The evidence consists almost entirely of traces of the foundation layer of gypsum concrete on which the lowest courses of stone had originally been laid; [this layer] survived the destruction of the stonework after the end of the Amarna Period."

View of Amarna

Remains of gypsum foundation, with measuring stick

Remains of gypsum foundation, with meter stick to indicate scale